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Instrument Model (Webster, 1999). (A) The measurand is the to-be-measured value of interest, whereas the physical measurement variable is associated, either directly or indirectly, to the measurand. The sensor converts the physical measurement variable in a signal variable (often an electric signal), and feeds it into a processing unit or computer. The value that we actually display is the measurement. (B) Analog to A. We detect collision, rotation and movement measurands by measuring magnetic flux density. The Hall-effect sensor converts the magnetic field into a voltage which is converted through the microcontroller’s ADC to a digital signal. We finally apply the measurements to a classifier which associates the measurements to one of the three measurands.

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